1.  A New Direction

1.1 The Problem

1.2 Exploring the Curriculum Transfer Model

1.3 A Bedrock Philosophy:  What School is For

1.4 From Doing School to Genuine Learning

1.5 The Prime Directive

1.6 The Danger of Merely Improving

1.7 The Paradigm Shift:  Beyond the Curriculum Transfer Model

1.8 The Attributes of Success

1.9 Building a Community of Self-Directed Learners

1.10 Bad Habits: What School is Not For

1.11 Addressing the Standards Problem

1.12 Transformation from the Inside Out

1.13 Tenets of a New Paradigm


2.  Creating the Classroom Culture

2.1 What Students (And All Humans) Need

2.2 Establishing Bedrock Beliefs

2.3 A Question of Governance

2.4 Instilling a Common Purpose:  The Prime Directive

2.5 Creating a Sense of Community

2.6 The Art of Appropriate Socializing

2.7 Redefining Power in the Classroom

2.8 Making Rules

2.9 Giving Students Voice and Autonomy

2.10 Charisma is Not Enough

2.11 Other Considerations

2.12 Tenets of a New Paradigm


3.  The Role of Student Work

3.1 Reframing Student Work

3.2 Cultivating Metacognition Through Student Self-evaluation

3.3 Guidelines for Student Work

3.4 Designing Conceptual Work — Cultivating Conscious Reading

3.5 Designing Skills-based Student Work — Scaffolding Independence

3.6 The Question of Mandatory Homework

3.7 Guidelines for Assigning Homework

3.8 Setting the Stage for Homework

3.9 Managing Student Work

3.10 Tenets of a New Paradigm


4.  Study Groups:  The Heart of Conversational Learning

4.1 The Benefits of Study Groups

4.2 Using Study Groups Throughout the Learning Sequence

4.3 Preparing Students to Participate in Study Groups 

4.4 Creating Study Groups

4.5 Other Considerations in the Design of Study Groups

4.6 Using Study Groups Effectively

4.7 Common Problem Areas and How to Respond to Them

4.8 Other Ways to Share the Wealth

4.9 Tenets of a New Paradigm


5.  Differentiated Learning:  Building the Responsive Classroom (Under construction)

5.1 The Essential Role of Differentiation

5.2 The Importance of Student Agency: Differentiated Learning vs Differentiated Instruction

5.3 Learning in the Comfort Zone

5.4 Differentiation by Readiness

5.5 Differentiation by Learning Style

5.6 Differentiation by Pace

5.7 Differentiation by Topic

5.8 Above and Beyond

5.9 The Structure of Differentiation:  Introducing Learning Contracts

5.10 Tenets of a New Paradigm


6.  Learning Contracts:  The Structure of Self-Directedness

6.1 A Sample Learning Contract

6.2 The Benefits of Learning Contracts

6.3 The Scope of Learning Contracts

6.4 When to Use Minicontracts

6.5 A Gallery of Minicontracts

6.6 Designing Minicontracts

6.7 Other Considerations

6.8 Introducing Contracts to Students

6.9 Feedback and Learning Contracts

6.10 Fairness

6.11 Learning Contracts and Grading

6.12 Tenets of a New Paradigm


7.  Unit Contracts

7.1 The Benefits of Unit Contracts

7.2 The Building Blocks of a Contract

7.3 Protocontracts: A Steppingstone

7.4 Other Considerations

7.5 A Sample Unit Contract

7.6 Other Examples of Unit Contracts

7.7 Constructing A Unit Contract

7.8  Tips on the Use of Contracts

7.9  Finding the Rhythm of the Contract Cycle

7.10 Contracts Require Teacher Responsiveness

7.11 Designing Your Course as a Sequence of Contracts

7.12 Tenets of a New Paradigm


8.  Making Tests Meaningful

8.1 The Lure of False Positives

8.2 The Limitations of Testing

8.3 Redefining the Purpose of Testing

8.4 The Benefits of Formative Tests

8.5 Separating Concepts from Skills

8.6 The Functions of Remediation

8.7 The Design of Remediation

8.8 The Remediation of Skills

8.9 The Remediation of Concepts

8.10 Other Considerations in Test Design, Evaluation, and Remediation

8.11 The Problem of Standardized Tests

8.12 Differentiated Exam Prep

8.13 Example:  Reviewing for a Psychology AP Exam

8.14 Other Sample Exam Reviews

8.15 Tenets of a New Paradigm


9.  Grades Reconsidered

9.1 The Dark Side of Grades

9.2 Exploring the Meaning of Grades

9.3 Separating Feedback From Grades

9.4 The Many Forms of Feedback

9.5 Other Considerations of Feedback

9.6 The Benefits of Self-Evaluation

9.7 Modes of Self-Evaluation

9.8 Self-evaluating Learning Contracts

9.9 Implementing Student Self-Evaluation

9.10 The Benefits of Grade Conferences

9.11 Implementing Grade Conferences

9.12 Guidelines for Creating an Effective Grading System

9.13 Putting It All Together:  A Grading System Example

9.14 Tenets of a New Paradigm


10.  Putting it All Together:  Designing the Learning Process

10.1 The Building Blocks of a Learning Sequence

10.2 Design Rules:  Choreographing the Learning Process

10.3 A Question of Agency

10.4 Sample Learning Sequences

10.5 The Virtual Road Test

10.6 Differentiation Throughout the Learning Sequence

10.7 The Role of Feedback in the Learning Process

10.8 Tenets of a New Paradigm